New Zealand Button History
Information for this page were in large part sourced from New Zealand’s National Library’s resource, ‘Papers Past’: https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/
I also found these useful:
The history of button manufacturing in New Zealand followed a similar course to that in Australia. Total reliance on imports gave way to local manufacturing and even exporting. Finding value from the waste products of the county’s growing meat and diary industry, buttons were made from teeth and bones, and casein was exported.
In 1939 in the suburb of Petone, Lower Hutt, a company called the American Button Company started manufacturing fashion buttons. Reportedly, before this factory opened there had not been a significant local production. From the article below it seems likely that the ‘American Button Company’ was making covered buttons:
How you gonna keep them down on the farm? Well, it wasn’t just Broadway pulling the young folk away, there was also the chance to sew buttons!
Major world events had local impacts. The New Zealand plastics industry made major contributions during WW2, producing large quantities of buttons for uniforms as well as millions of toothbrushes! In 1945 it was reported that the entry of Japan into the war had meant the loss of New Zealand’s main supply of pearl buttons. The local fresh-water mussels and trochus shells were of no commercial use, and supply from India was insufficient. This changed demand from pearl to plastic buttons, locally made as well as imported from the USA and Canada. Post war, world-wide shortages of supplies prompted charity efforts like that below;
There were two major plastic button producers, described following:
British Buttons and Buckles/General Plastics: Pluckett Avenue, Petone
Initial shareholders included A.G. Griffiths, O. C. Rheuben and N. R. Rheuben, who were involved in button manufacturing in Australia (O.C. Rheuben & Co, which would become ‘General Plastics’ in 1941). This New Zealand company was also renamed General Plastics around 1946. Headed by Jack Quinn, it produced Beauclaire branded buttons. The buttons were made by compression molding, pressing of slugs, and later injection molding. At one stage the company employed 70-80 people and was exporting container loads of buttons.
The factory started production at the end of August 1939. In November it was reported in the Evening Post that “The new factory already employs 50 hands and it is expected that the staff will increase to 70 when full production is attained. Already the company has delivered nearly 10,000 gross of buttons and it is contended that it can produce 1000,000 gross per annum”. It was not making men’s buttons or pearl buttons, rather women’s fashion buttons.
From the designs of cards and buttons it is evident that there was some sharing of design and marketing strategies, and some independence. It is possible the name Beauclaire originated in New Zealand, before a standardising of the marketing in the two countries, and was actually Belle-claire before it became Beauclaire (see below). Ads for ‘Pearl Sheen’ buttons appeared in 1949-50 newspapers.
As in Australia, at first the pale blue Beauclaire cards had no text in the lower oval, and the backs were completely blank.
Then printing at the bottom, and on the back occurred (identical wording except for the country’s name).
A bit of a mystery: Beauclaire cards, but the G. Herring concept of cardigan buttons with a backing disk and a different brand name, Astoria. Who had copied whom?
A counter-top display box of Astoria buttons:
The artwork changed, circa 1953. Boilproof and Moonglow branding appears.
Different artwork appeared in the late 1950s, when the branding became linked with Leda.
A “innovation” that was patented here was to punch out holes in the cards, and attach the buttons with sticky tape. I don’t feel this was a great idea! This method was mentioned in the news in 1954.
Mystery branding on Beauclaire cards
On 13th April, 1965, an electrical short circuit initiated an exposition of plastic dust which had accumulated below floor boards in the factory in Masterton. The explosions was so massive that a 300kg piece of machinery was thrown onto the roof. Four people were killed, six were injured, and it would have been worse had not most of the staff been on a tea break.
The company became New Zealand Casein Plastics Ltd in 1969. In 1988 a joint venture was formed with New Zealand Dairy Co. and a Japanese company, Nissei Kyoeki, to manufacture casein buttons for the Japanese market. This venture only lasted two years. The company wound up in 2004/5 as competition with cheaper polyester buttons as well as a rising NZ dollar against a sluggish Japanese economy took its toll. The final seven workers were laid off.
Buttons (N.Z.) Ltd./Falcon Plastics, Newmarket, Auckland
Joseph Henry Faulconbridge (1800 – 1955) was involved in clothing production. In 1934, working from his backyard and with only a few pounds capital, he started a button factory producing wood and pearl buttons. In 1936 he listed Buttons (New Zealand) Limited with his sons Roy and Ian and expanded production to cast resin, casein and compression molded plastic buttons in Auckland. The company became Falcon Plastics after 1945, with Ian as production manager and Roy as managing director. They produced items such as kitchen ware as well as buttons.
Around 1956 G.Herring opened a factory. For some reason the names ‘Titan’ and ‘Beauty Buttons’ and ‘Vogue’ were used before changing over to Beutron. The larger Titan cards are direct copies of Australian Beutron cards. Perhaps G. Herring exported to New Zealand under these names before manufacturing locally?
The card style below was not seen in Australia.
Minor Manufacturers/ Tailors Buttons/Distributors
A. Levy Ltd., Wellington
Abraham Levy (1861-1918), tailor, was supplying uniforms from at least 1913. In 1916 he was in trouble. Apparently he used cotton instead of linen thread!
Ballantyne & Co, Christchurch
John Ballantyne was born in Scotland in 1825. He traveled to Australia in 1852 then to New Zealand in 1871. Arriving in Christchurch in 1872 he was encouraged to take over a drapery firm, Dunstable House that had been established in 1854. The business became J. Ballantyne & Co. in 1920. The company trades today as Ballantynes.
Charles Parsons (NZ)/Corozo
Charles Parsons (NZ) limited was known as Corozo Button Company Limited from 18 March 1955 til 23 February 1966, then Ackmead Holdings Limited from then until 14 June 1993. As this card is marked with both Corozo and Ackmead Holdings trademarks, it perhaps dates to around 1966?
H.B. Craighead Ltd., Wellington
The Craighead family were tailors in New Zealand for several generations. Hugh Clark, Edwin George and his brother William Bruce Craighead were tailors and outfitters in Ashburton on the South Island. It appears W.B moved to Wellington and continued as a tailor. Huia Bruce Craighead was born in Wellington in 1897 so presumably was William’s son. H.B. would also become a tailor and from around 1932 traded as H.B. Craighead Ltd.
Horn Buttons and Accessories Ltd., Wellington
This company started in 1940 and was still advertising for staff in 1945. I don’t know when it folded.
Kawali Island Industries
Kawau Island lies in the Hauraki Gulf off the north Eastern coast of New Zealand. It is approximately 8×5 km. Ten percent of the Island is under control of the Department of Conservation, including an historical mansion and the remains of a copper mine. Considerable damage has been done to the environment due to introduced species, particularly wallabies. A trust is working to reverse some of this damage. The wooden buttons may be tourist or perhaps fundraising items.
Korbond Industries Pty. Ltd.
See also the Distributors page. Korbond Industries Limited started as manufacturers, but changed over to distribution. As Korbond was located in Auckland, the buttons may have been supplied by Falcon Plastics of the same city.
New Zealand Clothing Factory (Hallenstein Brothers), Dunedin
In 1873 The New Zealand Clothing Factory was established in Dunedin to supply the Hallenstein Brothers clothing stores. By 1900 there were 30 “HB” clothing stores across the country. A grand new headquarters was built in 1882-3 which housed up to 300 employees. The opening was celebrated with a ball for 500-600 people. The company continues today, but now most of the clothing is made in China.
The factory must have regularly tendered to supply uniforms, as I have received several backmarked “The New Zealand Clothing Factory”, although the buttons were most likely sourced from England. Some are generic patterns used by multiple forces throughout the Empire.
Ross & Glendining, Dunedin
In August 1862 two Scotsmen, John Ross and Robert Glendining, took over a drapery store in Dunedin. It was the start of a business that would last until 1966. They changed from retail drapery to wholesale and importing when they opened a warehouse in 1865.
By the 1900’s over 500 people were employed at the mill. The business changed from a partnership to a Limited company. John Ross remained involved in the company until the 1920’s, and his sons continued after that. The number of factories increased producing clothes and shoes under various fashion labels. In the 1960s the firm struggled, finally being sold and broken up after over a century of trading in 1966. The mill continued under new ownership until 1980.
Van Staveren, Wellington
In Wellington the name of van Staveren was well known. Herman van Steveren (1849-1930) was the Rabbi of Wellington from 1877 until his death. He was very active in the community, serving on charitable and hospital boards. Three of his sons (out of 13 children) opened Van Staveren Bros. Limited in 1905 as general traders and importers. The firm finally closed in the 1980’s.
As merchants rather than tailors, they must have been involved in the supply of of soldiers’ uniforms. As 4 sons volunteered in WW1, the family was obviously proud to contribute.
The Wellington Woollen Manufacturing Company, Limited.
This company was incorporated in 1882 and commenced manufacturing in 1886. The head office, warehouse and clothing factory were situated in a three/four story brick building in Petone, near Wellington. The mills were also in Petone.
Paua is the Maori name for several species of sea-snail, known elsewhere as abalone.
Items such as this, made from 3 uniform buttons, were bought or made as a gift for a sweetheart, wife or mother to wear whilst her boy served overseas.
Airways of New Zealand
Established in 1935 by the shipping company Union Steamship Co (see http://www.austbuttonhistory.com/new-zealand-button-history/#Union_Steam_Ship_Co) , Union Airways of New Zealand was the first major airline in the country. The first scheduled flight took place in January 1936. They used de Havialland DH86 and Lockheed Electra aircraft.
In 1938 the East Coast Airways Ltd., (which had been the first licensed passenger service in NZ in 1935) was merged with Union. After a prolonged negotiation, a trans-Tasman service was established in April 1940 under the control of the Australian, New Zealand and British governments, as well as Qantas, Imperial, and Union Airways (19% share), using Empire flying boats. It was called the Tasman Empire Airways Ltd. (TEAL)
Post WW2 the New Zealand government nationalised the airline, with the general manager of Union transferring to the new corporation. The aircraft, timetables and most personnel were also transferred to the new National Airways Corporation.
In 1978 the N.A.C. merged with Air New Zealand.
Auckland Electric Tramway: 1902-1956.
I love the design; a wheel, a giant magnet and bolts of electricity.
Allied Mutual Insurance (AMI)
The logo as seen on the buttons was changed in 2018.
This company started in 1926 as the South Island Motor Union. Problems with finance post the 2010-11 Christchurch earthquakes led to the sale of this company. In 2020 it was announced that the remaining branches were to be phased out.
Christchurch Boys High School
This is a school in Christchurch, New Zealand, opened in 1881, originally on the site of the (now) University of Canterbury, but moving to Straven Road in 1926.
Epsom Girls Grammar School, Auckland.
Epsom Girls Grammar was established in 1917. It caters for girls from years 9 to 13 and offers boarding.
Nelson College for Girls
Nelson College for Girls was established in 1883. It is a private school that offers boarding.
The school has ties with Nelson College, established in 1856; the oldest state secondary school in New Zealand. It is a boys only school from years 7 to 10, with boarding provided.
New Zealand Shipping Co.
Businessmen in Christchurch started this shipping company in late 1872 to run passenger and cargo services between New Zealand and Great Britain. In 1882 their ships were fitted with refrigeration to allow the shipping of frozen meat from New Zealand.
NB: There were similarly named, but unconnected, companies named ‘Forth and New Zealand Shipping Company’ in 1863-4 and ‘Panama and New Zealand Steamship Company” in 1866-8.
See also http://www.austbuttonhistory.com/uncategorized/19th-november-2020/
Union Steam Ship Co.
Formed in Dunedin in 1875 by James Mills from the Harbour Steam Company of his deceased boss. With a growing fleet of modern ships, and by taking over smaller concerns, the firm prospered. By 1877 it started trading between New Zealand and Australia, and by further acquisitions, including the Tasmanian Steam Navigation Co., came to dominate the trans-Tasman and Bass Strait trade. It extended to Pacific, trans-pacific, Asian routes and also to Britain. In 1917 Mills sold the line to P&O. This turned out very well for P&O as they secretly over many years, pulled profits out of the firm to prop up less profitable parts of its business.
In 1971 P&O sold Union off to a consortium including Thomas Nationwide Transport (TNT). Its services were reduced to concentrate on Tasman trade, reducing the company’s scope, then competition would further reduce profitability. Sadly, the once extensive and profitable firm ceased trading in 2000, after 125 years.
University of Canterbury, Christchurch
Founded in 1873 as Canterbury College, with the main campus in the suburb of Ilam. The name was changed in 1933 to Canterbury University College, then in 1957 to University of Canterbury. Women were allowed to be admitted to the college from its inspection. It was part of the University of New Zealand until 1961, then became an independent university in its own right. The University gradually moved from the centre of Canterbury to Ilam from 1961-1974. The original neo-gothic buildings are now used as the Christchurch Arts Centre.
Defence Force Uniforms
See also above in the section for the NZ Clothing Factory.
1st NZ Special Air Service Regiment (1 NZSAS Regt)
This unit was formed in 1955 and was modelled on the British SAS. it obtained regimental status in 2013. According to Wikipedia “It has the responsibility of conducting counter-terrorism and overseas special operations and performing the disposal of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive hazards for military and civilian authorities.”
New Zealand Army Education Corps
The Army Education and Welfare Service was established in 1942 to educate and to help servicemen integrate back into civilian life by offering library services and training courses. It became the New Zealand Army Education Corps in 1954, and received the Royal prefix in 1963.
New Zealand Army Veterinary Service: George V era
New Zealand Artillery
On 15th October 1902 the previous small permanent artillery force was designation the RNZA. In 1947 the volunteer and permanent components of the artillery were combined to form the Regiment of New Zealand Artillery as part of the nation’s army, receiving the Royal title in 1958.
New Zealand Rifle Brigade
The New Zealand Rifle Brigade was raised in April 1915, becoming the 3rd New Zealand (Rifle) Brigade in January 1916. The Auckland museum has a set of them, but without the letters RB on the front.
New Zealand Staff Corps
From 1911-1947 it provided professional administrative officers of the Territorial Forces (reservists). Many of the officers also served overseas during the wars.
New Zealand Women’s Royal Army Corps
In 1940 the Women’s War Service Auxillary was formed. This was the forerunner of the Women’s Army Auxillary Corps formed in 1942, which in turn became the New Zealand Women’s Royal Army Corps in 1948, receiving the Royal prefix in 1952. it was disbanded in 1977, when women were allowed to serve along side men in the New Zealand military.
Royal New Zealand Airforce
The New Zealand Permanent Airforce was gazetted in 1923 as part of the army. It was renamed the Royal New Zealand Air Force in 1934 and became an independent service in 1937.
Royal NZ Army Medical Corps
Royal New Zealand Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
The New Zealand Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (RNZEME) took over duties from other units in 1946, receiving the Royal prefix in 1947. it was amalgamated along with the ordnance and transport corps into the RNZA Logistic Regiment in 1996.
Royal New Zealand Nursing Corps
A Nursing Reserve was formed in 1908. The Corps formed in 1915 from civilian volunteer nurses. The lamp is probably meant to reference Florence Nightingale. Whilst the lamp she used was actually a Turkish fanoos, she is often depicted carrying a “genie lamp” (as on the Australian nursing button) or as depicted on this NZ button, and in a painting (unknown source: please let me know if you can) as seen below.
Left: National Army Museum: Florence’s fanoos, a paper lamp.
The Corps is an officer only corps that works along with the medical and dental corps in health care. Until 1945 it was only a part-time formation, except during periods of war.